These incidents may be useful as a basis for discussion in graduate courses, workshops, and other settings in which ethics are a focus of formal or informal learning and exploration. Discussion of the issues was limited in order to present as many incidents as possible; however, in some sections, the issues are discussed in light of not only emerging theory and research but also the current ethical code and the most recent draft revision.
Demand characteristics and investigator effects Data analysis Measures of central tendency and of dispersion Correlation coefficients Presentation and interpretation of quantitative data Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data Presentation of qualitative data However, this is not a logical teaching order so although this booklet will cover all the stuff mentioned above it will follow a different sequence and hopefully one more similar to the route taken in class.
Ethical issues in Psychological research Ethics are the moral codes laid down by professional bodies to ensure that their members or representatives adhere to certain standards of behaviour.
All scientific bodies have such codes but those in psychology are particularly important because of the subject matter of the topic. Psychology is unlike most other subject areas in that its subject matter is entirely human or animal. Because of this practically all research involves living things that can be caused physical or psychological harm.
Psychological research also needs to consider the wider community. Some research, for example studies on IQ, have been used to discriminate against different races or ethnic groups. The knowledge gained from psychological research can be exploited by people or groups to gain an advantage over others.
Protecting the individual in psychological research Many of the ideas mentioned in this section will be raised as we cover other topics later in the year and particularly in the last topic on social influence. Deception Protection of participants from physical and psychological harm The right to withdraw The right to withdraw data Confidentiality and Privacy We shall then consider ways of determining whether or not studies should take place, and strategies for minimising risks if they do.
To protect the well being, health and dignity of participants in psychological research. Did what we learn justify these methods? Deception Examples of studies involving deception: Asch, Milgram, Moscovici Deception involves either concealing the real intention of a study from participants or taking steps to mislead them at the outset.
All of the examples above used the second ploy, deliberately lying to participants about the genuine reason for a study. Two of them also used stooges or confederates people pretending to be participants who are really part of the experimental set up.
The use of stooges always means deception has been used. However, is deception necessary? The researchers above would all argue that their experiments could not have taken place without it.
When using the BEM sex role inventory to test gender, telling male participants in advance that you are trying to find how masculine or feminine they are will almost certainly influence the way they respond to the questionnaire! Baumrind on the other hand argues that deception is always wrong since it prevents informed consent see belowresearchers have an obligation to protect their participants see below and psychologists should be seen as professional and therefore trustworthy.
Debriefing It is really a matter of common courtesy to debrief your participants at the end of any procedure and inform them of the point of the research. Debriefing is crucial if any form of deception has been employed.Ethical Guidelines that are Broken in Milgram's Study on Obedience The ethical guidelines suggest that debriefing the participants after the experiment is essential, which Milgram has done it thoroughly in order to reveal the aim and the true purpose of .
Stanley Milgram. Home; About; Biography. The Electric Shock Experiment References; The Ethical Dilemma. When Milgram began his experiments "There were no formal ethical guidelines for the protection of the human subjects. Researchers tended to use their own judgment about whether their While it was truly to measure obedience, he .
Research courses need to encourage students to develop competencies as researchers who will reflect upon their research decisions with respect to pragmatic, philosophical, ethical, and moral issues related to research design, methods, data analysis, and presentation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate obedience to an E's commands as a function of E competency. Based upon Orne's (, ) discussion of the demand characteristics inherent in the.
Download Citation on ResearchGate | Cross-Cultural Methodological Issues in Ethical Research | Despite the fundamental and administrative difficulties associated with cross-cultural research the.
Discussion. We present an analysis of two contrasting paradigms of ethics. We argue that the first of these is characteristic of the ways that NHS ethics boards currently tend to operate, and the second is an alternative paradigm, that we have labelled the ‘iterative’ paradigm, which draws explicitly on methodological issues in qualitative research to produce an alternative vision of ethics.