I respect Richard immensely, but I have a problem describing as "gentrification" middle-class white people moving back to neighborhoods that were initially settled by middle-class white and black people, but that became slums after white flight in the s. To me, that is recovery, plain and simple. Furthermore, if people buy grand mansions built by successful merchants - that were later turned into crappy apartments - and renovate them as mansions, is that gentrification?
Introduction Standard theory views government as functional: The analogy rests on the market economy: But surely it is strained to say that, in the same way, a demand for postal services will spontaneously give rise to a government monopoly Post Office, outlawing its competition and giving us ever-poorer service for ever-higher prices.
Indeed, if the analogy fails when even a genuine service e. When the government, in short, takes money at gun point from A and gives it to B, who is demanding what?
The cream cheese producer on the market is using his resources to supply a genuine demand for cream cheese; he is not engaged in coercive redistribution. Who are the demanders, and who are the suppliers?
One can say that the An introduction to the essay to northeastern university, the "donees," are "demanding" this redistribution; surely, however, it would be straining credulity to claim that A, the fleeced, is also "demanding" this activity. But the really interesting role here is played by G, the government.
G, the government, in other words, performs his act of "redistribution" by fleecing A for the benefit of B and of himself. The felt need, then, might be on the part of the governmental Robin Hood himself. Why The Welfare State?
Why has government increased greatly over this century? Specifically, why has the welfare state appeared, grown, and become ever-larger and more powerful? What was the functional need felt here?
One answer is that the development of poverty over the past century gave rise to welfare and redistribution. But perhaps inequality has been aggravated, and the masses, even though better off, are upset by the increased income gap between themselves and the wealthy?
But it should also be evident from one glance at the Third World that the disparity of income and wealth between the rich and the masses is far greater there than in Western capitalist countries. Another standard answer more plausibly asserts that industrialization and urbanization, by the late 19th century, deprived the masses, uprooted from the soil or the small town, of their sense of community, belonging, and mutual aid.
Certainly it is true that the welfare state emerged during the same period as industrialization and urbanization, but coincidence does not establish causation.
One grave flaw in this urbanization theory is that it ignores the actual nature of the city, at least as it had been before it was effectively destroyed in the decades after World War II. The city was not a monolithic agglomeration but a series of local neighborhoods, each with its own distinctive character, network of clubs, fraternal associations, and street corner hangouts.
Large city life in the United States by was almost exclusively Catholic and ethnic, and both the political and social life of Catholic males in each neighborhood revolved, and still, to an extent, revolves, around the neighborhood saloon.
There the men of the neighborhood would repair each evening to the saloon, where they would drink a few beers, socialize, and discuss politics. Typically, they would receive political instruction from the local saloonkeeper, who was generally also the local Democratic ward heeler.
Wives socialized separately, and at home. The beloved community was still alive and well in urban America. On deeper historical inquiry, moreover, this seemingly plausible industrialism explanation falls apart, and not only on the familiar problem of American exceptionalism, the fact that the United States, despite industrializing more rapidly, lagged behind European countries in developing the welfare state.
Detailed investigations of a number of industrialized countries, for example, find no correlation whatsoever between the degree of industrialization and the adoption of social insurance programs between the s and the s or the s.
The earliest massive social welfare program in the United States was the dispensing of post-Civil War pensions to aging veterans of the Union Army and their dependents.
Yet, these post-Civil War pensions were more likely to aid farmers and small townsmen than residents of large industrial cities. County level post-Civil War pension studies in Ohio in the late s, the peak years for these pension payments, demonstrate a negative correlation between the degree of urbanism, or percentage of people living in homes rather than on farms, and the rates of receipt of pensions.
The author of the study concluded that "generally, pensions were distributed to predominantly rural, Anglo-Saxon areas," while the major city of Cleveland had the lowest per capita rate of receipt of pensions.This page contains the Argument topics for the Analytical Writing section of the GRE® General barnweddingvt.com you take the test, you will be presented with one Argument topic from this pool.
The people of the Six Nations, also known by the French term, Iroquois  Confederacy, call themselves the Hau de no sau nee (ho dee noe sho nee) meaning People Building a Long House.
Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
barnweddingvt.com: Society in Focus: An Introduction to Sociology (English and English Edition) (): William E. Thompson, Joseph V.
Hickey, Mica L. Thompson: Books. diary she kept along the Kennebec. Without the diary her biography would be little more than a succession of dates. Her birth in ENGL English at Northeastern. 1 Hour. Intended for first-year students in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities.
Introduces first-year students to the liberal arts in general; familiarizes them with their major; helps them develop the academic skills necessary to succeed (analytical ability and critical thinking); provides grounding in the culture and values of the University.
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