The Dutch established a patroon system with feudal-like rights given to a few powerful landholders; they also established religious tolerance and free trade. The city was captured by the English in ; they took complete control of the colony in and renamed it New York. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the s. Nya Sverige was a Swedish colony that existed along the Delaware River Valley from to and encompassed land in present-day Delawaresouthern New Jerseyand southeastern Pennsylvania.
Labor and Trade in Colonial America Common Misconceptions When textbooks discuss colonial labor practices, they most often associate the concept of labor with male work done outside the physical boundaries of the home—in fields; on docks; in warehouses; on ships.
Labor is associated with creating goods for market, allowing men to participate in the "triangle trade"—a network of trade relationships in which raw materials flowed from the Americas to Europe, manufactured goods moved from Europe to Africa, and enslaved Africans were shipped back to the Americas.
Yet this framing oversimplifies the complex history of labor in colonial America. It overlooks female labor as central, not peripheral, to the survival of familial and colonial economies alike. It ignores the fact that different patterns of labor existed in Native communities, and that non-Native opinions of Native labor practices influenced colonial Indian policy.
It also oversimplifies the complex web of international trade relationships that wove together the Atlantic world. Commodities never flowed in one direction; goods, people, and services might depart from, and end their journey at, any number of Atlantic world ports.
In the western contemporary world we are used to thinking of work as something done for wages outside the home. This distinction did not hold for the vast majority of laborers in colonial America. Colonial America was overwhelmingly rural, and North or South, households were made up of a dwelling place for a family which often included servants and slavesa garden, shelter for livestock, and fields for crops.
Female labor stretched these raw materials into objects of greater economic value.
Flax and wool might be turned into thread or yarn, woven into cloth, and turned into clothing see Primary Source Massachusetts Law on Spinning . A colonial wife might make her own soap—boiled from fat and lye—and she was always responsible for washing clothes and bedding.
Herbs grown in a garden or gathered locally constituted the basic materials for healthcare, and healing the sick was an overwhelmingly female task.
Food came into the home in its raw form. It was female labor that turned wheat into bread, milk into butter, grain into beer, and meat into bacon. All of this labor enabled work outside the household to continue. Colonial bodies owed their function to the women who fed, clothed, washed, and healed them see Primary Source Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams .
This labor was arduous; it was often done under duress, or compelled of those who did not have the freedom to refuse. It was the glue that held society together. A Multifaceted Agreement That most men and women worked side by side did not mean they did the same tasks; that slaves and servants often worked beside those who could compel their labor did not mean all work had equal social value.
Labor in colonial America was deeply gendered and racialized. Beyond custom and culture, one of the primary mechanisms by which labor gained its racial and gendered character was marriage.
Legally, a woman could not control her own earnings, sue, make a contract, vote, sit on a jury, or be called into the militia—she depended upon her husband to do all these things on her behalf.Labor Systems of Early America Native American Labor. A short guide to the tribes of North America (site also has a bibliography); Richard Hakluyt Discourse of Western Planting ().
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UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for.
Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their Catholics in British America, – People of Prowess Sport Leisure and Labor in Early Anglo-America () excerpt; Tate, Thad W.
Chesapeake in the. Introduction. Slavery was the most important institution in colonial British America. Every area of colonial British America before the American Revolution allowed slavery, and in southern and island plantations it was essential to all areas of life.
Early Colonial Labor Force: Indentured Servants and Slaves Grade Level: 8th: Academic Standards; Historical Background; and Albemarle Point to the time of South Carolina’s establishment as an economically important British colony, including the diverse origins of the settlers, the early government, the importance of the plantation system.