The major advancements in computer hardware technology between 1970 and 1980

Capacitive sensing A capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulatorsuch as glasscoated with a transparent conductorsuch as indium tin oxide ITO. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch.

The major advancements in computer hardware technology between 1970 and 1980

There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home. The Intel ran at a clock speed of kHz and contained transistors see chip photo. It processed data in 4 bits, but it used bit addresses.

It had sixteen 4-bit registers and ran an instruction set containing 46 instructions, each taking either 8 or 16 clock cycles to complete, yielding performance of about 60, instructions per second 92, peak.

This made it roughly equal to the original ENIAC in the size of a fingernail, at a time when the CPUs of most computers still took several large circuit boards. The was a very big deal for the young Intel company, which was only three years old at the time — it was founded in by Bob Noyce renowned for his co-invention of the silicon chip in and Gordon Moore of Moore's Law fame.

Ted Hoff had the original idea of building a single general-purpose processor instead of 12 custom chips, while Federico Faggin was the lead designer of the processor itself.

Faggin later went on to found his own chip company, Zilogwhich competed with Intel for most of the s, resulting in Intel attempting to "disown" him and deny his crucial role in the birth of the microprocessor.

C was far from being the first high-level language, but its low-level approach and use of memory addresses as pointers made it the first language which could completely replace machine-specific assembly language programming, even for the internals of an operating system.

C was thus the first systems programming language — no longer was an operating system tied to a particular piece of hardware. Thanks to the C language and the system's modular and minimalist design, only two years were needed to develop the initial core system software.

The C programming language went on to become the dominant language for both system software and application development in the s, across all operating systems, but UNIX and the C language were intimately tied from the very beginning — the C standard library was essentially the original UNIX operating system API.

Several of the key features of UNIX — multitasking which was called "time sharing" back thenvirtual memory, multi-user design and security — did not reach the personal computer market for another fifteen years, and didn't reach the mainstream IBM PC for more than twenty.

The basic technology of a floppy plastic disc coated with iron oxide and enclosed in a protective cover went on to become the dominant data exchange technology for almost three decades. Compared to other technologies, floppy disks caught on very quickly, probably due to their low cost.

The original 8 inch disk soon gave way to smaller 5. Floppy disk drives were available for the very first generation of personal computers, although they were an expensive extra-cost external device rather than built-in.

By the mids, 3. Due to the high cost of hard disk drives at the time, it was commonplace in the '80s for personal computers to boot and run applications from one floppy disk while using a second floppy disk to store user files sometimes in a second drive, often just by swapping disks.

Slimming down the OS and application s to fit everything onto a single floppy disk was a real art form in those days. Based on ping pong table tennisPong was a simple game which hooked up directly to a television set.

Each player used a controller dial to control the vertical position of a bat on the screen, and a ball bounced between the two bats, possibly bouncing off the top or bottom of the screen in the process.

This was groundbreaking stuff, and paved the way for the multi-billion-dollar games industry. Pong was created by Al Alcornbased on the nearly identical table-tennis game Atari's founder Nolan Bushnell had seen on the Magnavox Odyssey games console designed by Ralph Baer.

The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Moreover, federal intervention to take title to inventions or to issue compulsory licenses, although at first glance perhaps appealing in particular high-profile circumstances, would create uncertainty and anxiety in the business environment for drug development and most likely exert a chilling effect on technology transfer agreements between. Jul 01,  · Taguchi experimental design to determine the taste quality characteristic of candied carrot. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ekawati, Y.; Hapsari, A. A. Robust parameter design is used to design product that is robust to noise factors so the product’s performance fits the target and delivers a better quality.

The avalanche of Pong clones ultimately inspired Atari to create a far better, more flexible games console based on a microprocessor and software rather than hardwired circuits — the Atari released in Thanks to the flexibility of software, the Atari was able to run many different popular games over its lifetime, such as Space Invaders and Pac Manpushing sales of the console to more than 10 million units, with highly profitable games software sales even greater over 7 million copies of Pac Man alonemaking Atari the dominant games company of the late s and early '80s.

The Winchester Hard Disk Drive InIBM introduced the first sealed hard disk drive, the IBM Winchestera dramatic improvement over earlier hard-disk storage systems which were cumbersome, sensitive, fragile devices the size of washing machines, with removable platters.

The hard disk drive was originally planned to use two 30 MB spindles, and was thus named the "Winchester" after the famous Winchester rifle "the rifle that won the west"although the final product actually shipped with either one or two 35 MB spindles, for up to 70 MB of storage capacity.

Due to the cost of laying cables between the Hawaiian islands, ALOHAnet used a shared medium — the radio spectrum — for communication between several different computers at once, rather than having each computer only talk directly with a computer at the other end of a wire.

Random back-off and retransmission was used in the event of collisions if two computers happened to send packets at the same time. Ethernet had a lot going for it, including the "triple threat" — it was simple, it was fast, and it was cheap because it used common coaxial cables.

As a result, it quickly became the dominant local area networking standard for mainframe and minicomputer systems, as well as the early UNIX workstations and PC-based office networks.

By the early s, personal computers started coming with Ethernet as a standard feature, and by the late '90s it was almost mandatory.

The major advancements in computer hardware technology between 1970 and 1980

To reduce the cost of cabling even further, alternative cabling systems were introduced over time, including thinner coaxial cable and ultimately low-cost, unshielded telephone-style twisted pair cabling, which allowed a star-based topology that was better suited to wiring up office buildings.

Over time, the speed of Ethernet was also increased, first from 3 Mbps to 10 Mbps, then, 10, and onwards. Almost 30 years after its creation, Ethernet even made its way back to its radio-spectrum origins, in the form of WiFi.

Designed by Ed Robertsthe Altair launched as the cover story of Popular Electronics magazine in Januaryand an astonishing Altairs were sold that year — more than any computer before.The Computer Systems Policy Project is an organization formed by the largest computer hardware manufacturers to promote the interests of the computing industry in Washington.

This short video outlines CPSR's principles and recommendations for action with respect to the National Information Infrastructure. Based on the MOS Technology processor, it was a very popular computer for British schools up to the development of the Acorn Archimedes (in ).

In the government offered to pay half the cost of such computers in an attempt to promote their use in secondary education.

The History of Computers During My Lifetime - s

The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

The Code is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. We tallied up all the jobs destroyed in the US since as a result of the rise of personal computing and the Internet, and it’s about million. we see millions more jobs created both directly for computer-hardware manufacturers and the input industries, like semiconductors.

before everyone, particularly businesses, adjust. Seagate ST hard disk drive. Memory & Storage; Seagate Technology creates the first hard disk drive for microcomputers, the ST The disk held 5 megabytes of data, five times as much as a standard floppy disk, and fit in the space of a floppy disk drive.

Moreover, federal intervention to take title to inventions or to issue compulsory licenses, although at first glance perhaps appealing in particular high-profile circumstances, would create uncertainty and anxiety in the business environment for drug development and most likely exert a chilling effect on technology transfer agreements between.

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