Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Language and Gender Essay Sample The terms sex and gender are often used interchangeably but the term gender was originally introduced to have a slightly different meaning to sex. In this way, sex refers to biological differences whereas gender refers to social differences. So for example, the fact that men have lots of facial hair and women dont is a sex difference but the fact that women wear skirts and men dont in Western cultures is a gender difference.
Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production".
Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.
The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite.
These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet.
It may or may not include abstract signs. It is thought that they wrote from right to left and that the script is thought to be logographic. Because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system; however, it is genuinely thought to be an independent writing system that emerged in the Harappa culture.
Origins of the alphabet[ edit ] According to social anthropologist Jack Goodythere are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelbcredit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system c. But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".
Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petriewho, incame across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
InWilliam F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody's findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugaritdiscovered in by French archaeologist Claude F. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts written in an early Canaanite dialect that consisted of a letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet.
Another significant discovery was made in when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE. According to Frank Moore Crossthese inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet.
Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts". During the Late Bronze Agesuccessor alphabets appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and were employed for PhoenicianHebrew and Aramaic.
According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians.I recently read at a convention a piece of fiction with a male protagonist written in the first person.
Afterwards, one of the male audience members came up and asked me how I managed to write a character of the opposite gender so realistically. Richard Nordquist has a Ph.D.
in English and rhetoric and is professor emeritus at Armstrong State University. He is the author of two college grammar and composition textbooks.
Business writing is informative, instructive, persuasive, and transactional. The goal of business writing is to transmit. In professional writing, it is good practice to write in gender-neutral terms.
This page provides examples of gender specific terms and how to avoid them. Before you start writing your resume, choose a type of resume that highlights your strengths and achievements, review what information to include in your resume and examples of each part of a resume, and then select a typical resume format.
Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language. The following is a summary of the gender neutral NCTE Guidelines revised in , by Women in Literacy and Life Assembly (WILLA).It is full of tips to help you keep your writing gender-neutral and avoid sexist language.
When written vertically, the writing system is top to bottom, and right to left. When written horizontally, the writing system is most often left to right, similar to standard English text. In the early to mids, there were infrequent cases of horizontal text being written right to left, but that style is very rarely seen in modern Japanese writing.